Collection of Prints and Drawings

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Production People
Parmigianino (Print made by)artist bio
Parmigianino [Mazzola, Girolamo Francesco Maria]
b Parma, 11 Jan 1503; d Casalmaggiore, 24 Aug 1540

Raphael (After)artist bio
Raphael [Santi, Raffaello; Sanzio, Raffaello]
b Urbino, 28 March or 6 April 1483; d Rome, 6 April 1520
Title / Description
St Peter and St John Healing the Cripples at the Gate of the Temple
 
Date
c. 1524-30
 
Technique
etching, engraving, chiaroscuro woodcut from two blocks in ochre
Material
paper
Dimensions
268 x 401 mm (sheet, trimmed)
Inscriptions
Lettered lower left: 'I. V.R.', and inscribed in pen and brown ink: 'Raphael Urbin'
State
later state
 
Watermark
not visible through mount
Provenance
Nikolaus Esterházy (Lugt 1966)
 
References
Vasari 1568 (ed. Milanesi), vol. V, p. 423 info
Giorgio Vasari, Le vite de' più eccellenti pittori, scultori ed architettori. Scritte da Giorgio Vasari (Firenze 1568). Con nuove annotazioni e commenti di Gaetano Milanesi, 9 vols, Firenze 1878-85

Daret 1651, p. 90 info
Giorgio Vasari, Abregé de la vie de Raphael Sansio d'Urbin, trésexcellent peintre & architecte: où il est traitté de ses oeuvres, des stampes qui en ont esté gravées, tant par Marc-Antoine Bolognois qu'autres excellent graveurs: de l'origine de la graveure en tailledouce: Avec une adresse des lieux où les principaux peintres italiens, d'escrits par Vasari, ont travaillé / Giorgio Vasari. Traduit d'italien en français, par P. Daret, Paris 1651.

Basan 1767, vol. I, p. 318 info
Francois Basan, Dictionnaire des graveurs anciens et modernes depuis d'origine de la gravure, 3 vols., Paris 1767

Heinecken 1768-1769, bol. I, p. 307 with note, no. 13,
vol. II, p. 409, no. 67a info
Karl Heinrich von Heinecken, Nachrichten von Künstlern und Kunst-Sachen, 2 vols., Leipzig 1768-69

Strutt 1785-1786, vol. II, pp. 136-37 info
Joseph Strutt, A biographical dictionary: containing an historical account of all the engravers, from the earliest period of the art of engraving to the present time ; and a short list of their most esteemed works, 2 vols., London 1785-1786

Gori Gandellini 1808-1816, vol. II, p. 225, vol. XII,
p. 180, no. 31 info
Giovanni Gori Gandellini, Notizie istoriche degli intagliatori, 15 vols., Siena 1808-1816

Bartsch XII.78.27 info
Adam Bartsch, Le peintre-graveur, vols. 21, Vienna 1803-21

Bartsch XVI.9.7 (second state of two) info
Adam Bartsch, Le peintre-graveur, vols. 21, Vienna 1803-21

Tauriscus 1819, pp. 120-21 info
Tauriscus Euboeus, Catalogue des Estampes, Gravées d'apres Raphael, Frankfurt 1819

Cumberland 1827, pp. 384-87, no. 430 info
George Cumberland, An essay on the utility of collecting the best works of the ancient engravers of the Italian school; accompanied by a critical catalogue, with interesting anecdotes of the engravers, of a chronological series of rare and valuable prints, from the earliest practice of the art in Italy to the year 1549, now deposited in the British Museum and Royal Academy, in London, London 1827

Quatremère de Quincy 1829, p. 451 info
Antoine Chrysostôme Quatremère de Quincy, Istoria della vita e delle opere di Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, Milano 1829

Nagler, Künstler-Lexicon vol. VIII, p. 522, no. 7 info
Georg Kaspar Nagler, Neues allgemeines Künstler-Lexicon, 22 vols., Munich 1835-52

Vallardi 1843, p. 134 info
F. S. Vallardi, Manuele del Raccoglitore e del Negoziazione di Stampe contenente le Stampe Amnichi e Moderne, Milan 1843

Heller 1850, p. 440 info
Joseph Heller, Praktisches Handbuch für Kupferstichsammler oder Lexicon der vorzüglichsten und beliebtesten Kupferstecher, Formschneider, Lithographen... nebst einem chronologischen Verzeichnisse der Kupferstecher, etc. und dem Porträt des Verfassers, Leipzig 1850

Le Blanc II.630.8 info
Charles Le Blanc, Manuel de l'amateur d'estampes, 4 vols., Paris 1854-90

Passavant 1860, vol. II, p. 198 info
Johann David Passavant, Raphaël d'Urbin et son père Giovanni Santi, 2 vols., Paris 1860

Andresen 1870-1873, vol. II, p. 258 info
Andreas Andresen, Handbuch für Kupferstichsammler oder Lexicon der Kupferstecher, Maler-Radierer und Formschneider aller Länder und Schulen nach Massgabe ihrer geschätzten Blätter und Werke, Leipzig 1870-1873

Ruland 1876, p. 248, no. A.IV.11 info
Charles Ruland, The Works of Raphael Santi da Urbino as Represented in the Raphael Collection in the Royal Library at Windsor Castle, London 1876

Wilde 1918, pp. 34f info
Johann Wilde, Die Anfänge der Italienischen Radierung, Diss., Universität Vienna 1918

Fröhlich-Bum 1921, p. 71 info
Lili Fröhlich-Bum, Parmigianino und der Manierismus, Vienna 1921

Copertini 1932, vol. 2, pp. 22, 151 info
Giovanni Copertini, Il Parmigianino, Parma 1932

Parma 1935, nos. 62 and 63 info
Mostra del Correggio, ed. Armando Ottaviano Quintavalle, exhibition catalogue, Parma, Palazzo della Pilotta Parma 1935

Quintavalle 1948, p. 76 info
Armando Ottaviano Quintavalle, Il Parmigianino, Milan 1948

Copertini 1949, p. 14 info
Giovanni Copertini, Nuovo contributo di studi e richerche sul Parmigianino, Parma 1949

Oberhuber 1963b, p. 34, note 29, no. 36 info
Konrad Oberhuber, 'Parmigianino als Radierer,' Alte und Moderne Kunst 8, 68 (1963), pp. 33-36

Oberhuber 1963a, no. 45 info
Konrad Oberhuber, Parmigianino und sein Kreis, exhibition catalogue, Vienna, Albertina 1963

Bianchi 1968, pp. 670, 684, note 209 info
Lidia Bianchi, La fortuna di Raffaello nell'incisione, in Mario Salmi, Raffaello: L' opera, le fonti, la fortuna, Novara 1968, vol. 2, pp. 647-89

Fagiolo dell’Arco 1970, p. 281 info
Maurizio Fagiolo dell’Arco, Il Parmigianino: un saggio sull’ermetismo nel Cinquecento, Rome 1970

Oberhuber 1972, p. 123, note 5 info
Konrad Oberhuber, Raphaels Zeichnungen IX: Entwürfe zu Werken Raphaels und seiner Schule im Vatikan 1511-12 bis 1520, Berlin 1972

Shearman 1972, pp. 98ff info
John Shearman, Raphael's Cartoons in the Collection of Her MAjesty the Queen and the Tapestries for the Sistine Chapel, London and New York 1972

Providence 1973, no. 97 (entry by S. E. Stauber) info
Drawings and Prints of the First Maniera: 1515-1535, exhibition catalogue, Providence, Museum of Art 1973

Trotter 1974, pp. 193-94 (third state of three) info
William H. Trotter, Chiaroscuro Woodcuts of the Circle of Raphael and Parmigianino: A Study in Reproductive Graphics, PhD Diss., Ann Arbor, University of North Carolina 1974

Dresden 1983, no. 192 info
Raffael zu Ehren, eds. Angelo Walther Henning and Werner Schmidt, exhibition catalogue, Dresden, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden 1983

Coburg 1984, no. 365 info
Raphael: Reproduktionsgraphik aus vier Jahrhunderten, exhibition catalogue by Susanne Netzer, Kunstsammlungen der Veste Coburg Coburger Landesstiftung, Coburg 1984

Emison 1985, pp. 225-26 info
Patricia Anne Emison, Invention and the Italian Renaissance Print: Mantegna to Parmigianino, Ph.D. Diss., Columbia University 1985

Rome 1985, p. 131, no. IV.1 info
Raphael Invenit: Stampe da Raffaello nelle collezioni dell'Istituto Nazionale per la Grafica, exhibition catalogue by Grazia Bernini Pezzini, Stefania Massari, and Simonetta Prosperi Valenti Rodino, Rome 1985

London 1987, no. 36 info
Parmigianino, ed. Helen Braham, exhibition catalogue, London, Courtauld Institute Galleries 1987

Davis 1988, no. 33 info
Bruce Davis, Mannerist Prints: International Style in the Sixteenth Century, exhibition catalogue, Los Angeles, County Museum of Art 1988

Basel 1989-90, no. 26 info
Raffaelisch-michelangelesk: Graphik des Manierismus im Kupferstichkabinett Basel, exhibition and catalogue by Paul Tanner, Kunstmuseum Basel 1989

Boston, Cleveland, and Washington 1989, no. 10 (entry
Richard Wallace as copy) info
Italian Etchers of the Renaissance and the Baroque, eds. Sue Welsh Reed and Richard Wallace, Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, Cleveland, The Cleveland Museum of Art, and Washington, The National Gallery of Art 1989

Cordellier and Py 1992, p. 264 info
Dominique Cordellier and Bernadette Py, Inventarie Général des Dessins Italiens V: Raphaël son Atelier, ses Copistes, Paris 1992

Gould 1994, p. 197 info
Cecil Gould, Parmigianino, New York 1994

Landau and Parshall 1994, p. 270 info
David Landau and Peter Parshall, The Renaissance Print: 1470-1550, New Haven and London 1994

Gnann in Mantua and Vienna 1999, no. 281 info
Achim Gnann in Raphael und der klassische Stil in Rom: 1515-1527, eds. Konrad Oberhuber and Achim Gnann, exhibition catalogue, Mantua, Palazzo Te and Vienna, Albertina 1999

Höper 2001, no. H 3.1 (as Parmigianino) info
Corinna Höper, Raffael und die Folgen: Das Kunstwerk in Zeitaltern seiner graphischen Reproduzierbarkeit, exhibition catalogue, Stuttgart, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart 2001

Gnann 2003, p. 86 info
Achim Gnann, Parmigianino e la Grafica, in Parmigianino e il manierismo europeo, eds. Lucia Forlani Schianchi and Sylvia Ferino Pagden, exhibition catalogue, Parma, Galleria Nazionale 2003, pp. 83-91

Mussini and De Rubeis 2003, no. 2 (as Anonymous Artist) info
Massimo Mussini and Grazia Maria De Rubeis, Parmigianino tradotto: La fortuna di Francesco Mazzola nelle stampe di riproduzione fra il Cinquecento e l'Ottocento, exhibition catalogue, Parma, Biblioteca Palatina 2003

Matile 2003, no. 52 (attributed to Parmigianino, c.
1530-40, second state of two) info
Michael Matile, Italienische Holzschnitte der Renaissance und des Barock, Bestandskatalog der Graphische Sammlung der ETH, Zürich, Basel 2003

Ottawa and New York 2003-4, no. 26 info
The Art of Parmigianino, exhibition catalogue by David Franklin, with an essay by David Ekserdjian, Ottawa, The National Gallery of Canada and New York, The Frick Collection 2003–4

Ekserdjian 2006, p. 29 info
David Ekserdjian, Parmigianino, New Haven and London 2006

Gnann 2007a, nos. 30-32 (as circle of Parmigianino,
third state of three) info
Achim Gnann, Parmigianino und sein Kreis: Druckgraphik aus der Sammlung Baselitz, exhibition catalogue, Munich, Staatliche Graphische Sammlung München and Frankfurt am Main, Städel Museum 2007

Kárpáti 2009-10, nos. 32-34 info
Zoltán Kárpáti, The Alchemy of Beauty: Parmigianino Drawings and Prints, exhibition catalogue, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 2009-10

Gnann 2013, nos. 56-59 (as circle of Parmigianino) info
Achim Gnann, In Farbe! Clair-obscur-Holzschnitte der Renaissance aus der Sammlung Baselitz und der Albertina, exhibition catalogue, Albertina, Vienna, 2013
 
Comment
The composition is Parmigianino's adaptation of Raphael's design for the Sistine Chapel tapestries. Parmigianino's role in the production of this print has caused controversy. If the tone blocks were added by Parmigianino himself, the print would be, along with those by Domenico Beccafumi, one of the first examples of the mixture of intaglio and relief methods. However, it is impossible to determine whether the print was intended to receive tone blocks from the start. While the attribution of the print has been also disputed by many scholars, we have no doubt that the first version of the etching printed with only one wood block was made by Parmigianino himself in close collaboration with a professional woodcutter, such as Ugo da Carpi or Antonio da Trento. This drastically reworked impression is generally described as a copy, but is actually a later state of the original printed from two new tone blocks added by the publisher.
 
Inventory Number
6286
 
Classification
Prints: Italian: 16th century: Mounted II
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